The Kremlin is the workplace of the supreme authority of the Russian government, the center of Moscow's geography and history, located on the left bank of the Moscow River, on Borovitskii hill, which is one of the oldest parts of the city. and is one of the nation's major historical-art architectures. This is a historic fortress overlooking Red Square in Moscow, which includes Kremlin palaces, Kremlin churches, and Kremlin walls with Kremlin towers. In 1990, UNESCO put the Kremlin on the World Heritage list.
The Kremlin National Palace was built in 1961 and since then, Moscow has been at the center of Russia's political development and focal point. This ramparts has triangles, lying on the river bank, occupying an area of 2.75 thousand m2. The surrounding wall was built of red bricks and along with it there were dozens of ancient towers with pointed roofs. On the square in the center of the Kremlin is a series of churches, three of which have a close relationship with court activities and political activities throughout the country. The Senate building, the office of the Russian President and important advisers are all here.
The Church of the Holy Mother was built in 1475 in heaven and is the place to celebrate the rituals of the Tsar; Bao church is glazed with gold in the roof, so it is also called the "golden roof" and Thien ang church is the place to worship the Tsar. On the Kremlin wall, there are 20 watchtower towers, above one of these towers is a famous clock that takes the standard time for the whole country. The East is the famous Savior tower 70m high, facing the legendary Red square every year.
In the Kremlin area there are post-active agencies:
The Russian Federal Police Department - performs functions to protect key Russian figures. Official workplace of the Russian president.
Palace of Kremlin Congress - Place of various activities.
Russian Orthodox Church - using Arkhangelskii church, Blagoveshchenskii church, Uspenskii church, Rizopolozheniya church.
Kremlin Museum, Moscow. The Kremlin exhibition activity takes place. There are cultural buildings. Founded on March 10, 1806.
The Kremlin is known as one of the most mysterious areas in Russia. Visitors are also allowed to visit the electricity campus and the museum, the cathedral, but not to the government's secret agencies. In particular, there are many tunnels built in the old days, which are still unknown.
In the 15th century the principality in Russia was united by Grand Duke Ivan III of Moscow, after which he became the Grand Duke of Russia. He organized the reconstruction of Kremlin, invited many famous builders from Italy, Aristotile Fioravanti architect is one of them. The Kremlin was rebuilt with the participation of these Italian architects. Sobornaya Square became its center with the construction works after its turn.
During the period of 1485 - 1495, during the period of Ivan III, the Kremlin fortifications were rebuilt. New walls and watchtowers are taller and thicker than before, covered with red bricks. The wall extends to 2,235 m with a thickness ranging from 3.5 to 9 m, with a special Italian "tail swallow" hole. Period 1508 - 1516 in the area today is Red Square, people dug ditches, water from the Neglinnaya river. Kremlin becomes an impregnable fortress, surrounded by water.
During the period of the 17th and 19th centuries, active construction activities of works for the upper class and the Kremlin ensured a reasonable completion. In 1635 - 1636, Teremnoi palace was built, connected to Granovitaya palace. In the 17th century, Kremlin watchtowers were also completed and shaped like today. Period 1702 - 1736 built a large building for weapons (architects D. Ivanov, Kh. Kondrad with the participation of Mikhail Ivanovich Choglokov). The period of 1776 - 1787 was the building of the Senate Institute (architect Matvei Phiodorovich Kazakov).
In 1812 Moscow and Kremlin were occupied by Napoleon Bonaparte's army. When retreating, Napoleon ordered a mine to destroy Kremlin buildings. Although the majority of explosives did not explode, the losses were generally significant. The blasting towers were Vodovzvoznaya, Petrovskaya and Anonymous, suffered heavy losses as the Arsenalnaya tower, causing damage to the subordinates to the bell tower Ivan Velikii. Restoration of damaged buildings lasting 20 years, from 1815 to 1836.
In the middle of the 18th century, the idea of building the Grand Palace Kremli was born, located along the southern slope of the river bank. During the various stages this project has been architect V.I. Bazhenov, M. Ph. Kazakov, A.N. Lvov, V.P. Stasov deployed. But only the project of Konstantin Andreevich Ton in the period 1839 - 1849 is expressed in life. According to his project, during the period 1844 - 1851 people built the building of the Oruzheinaya Palace (the Palace of Weapons).
With the advent of the Soviet regime, Kremlin became one of the symbols of the new regime. The period 1935 - 1937 the two-headed eagles, previously decorated on the main towers of the Kremlin were Spasskaya Nikolskaya, Troitskaya, Borovitskaya and Vodovoznaya, which were replaced by rubies, 3 - 3,75 m diameters. In the period 1959 - 1961, the Palace of Kremlin Palace (now called National Palace of GKD) was built by Mikhail Posokhin and many others, looking like a modern concert hall, with sketches. Marble-covered rectangles are represented by narrow towers and multi-storey pillars of glass panels.
Since 1955 the Kremlin is open to visitors and becomes an outdoor museum. In 1990 UNESCO put the Kremlin on the World Heritage list.